Schedule a Meeting


Foundational Considerations for Artificial Intelligence Utilizing Ophthalmic Images

This publication listing is temporary while AAO works to correct an error in the existing link.
IMPORTANCE The development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and other machine diagnostic systems, also known as Software as a Medical Device (SaMD), and its recent introduction into clinical practice, requires a deeply-rooted foundation in bioethics, for consideration by regulatory agencies and other stakeholders around the globe.
OBJECTIVES Initiate a dialogue on the issues to consider when developing a bioethically sound foundation for AI in medicine, based on images of eye structures, for discussion with all stakeholders.
EVIDENCE REVIEW The scope of the issues and summaries of the discussions under consideration by the Foundational Principles of Ophthalmic Imaging and Algorithmic Interpretation Working Group, as first presented during the Collaborative Community on Ophthalmic Imaging inaugural meeting on September 7, 2020, and afterwards in the working group.
FINDINGS AI has the potential to fundamentally improve healthcare access and patient outcome, while decreasing disparities, lowering cost, and enhancing the care team. Nevertheless, substantial concerns exist. Bioethicists, AI algorithm experts, as well as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies, industry, patient advocacy groups, clinicians and their professional societies, other provider groups, payors, (“stakeholders”), working together in collaborative communities to resolve the fundamental ethical issues of non-maleficence, autonomy and equity, is essential to attain this potential. Resolution impacts all levels of the design, validation and implementation of AI in medicine. Design, validation and implementation of AI warrant meticulous attention.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The development of a bioethically sound foundation may be possible if it is based in the fundamental ethical principles non-maleficence, autonomy and equity, for considerations for the design, validation and implementation for AI systems. Achieving such a foundation will be helpful for continuing successful introduction into medicine, before consideration by regulatory agencies. Important improvements in accessibility and quality of healthcare, decrease in health disparities, and lower cost can thereby be achieved. These considerations should be discussed with all stakeholders and expanded upon as a useful initiation of this dialogue.

Foundational Considerations for Artificial Intelligence Utilizing Ophthalmic Images - Publication